HomeAnnotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

Works Cited

Primary Sources

1. Hudson Austin. “Hudson Austin Speech Announcing the Killing of Maurice Bishop October 19, 1983.” Caribbean Videos. N.p., 19 Oct. 1983. Television.

This radio announcement was aired over Radio Free Grenada on the 19th October 1983 announcing the killing of Maurice Bishop in through the voice of Hudson Austin. This announcement included the events that started on the streets led by Unison Whiteman and continued into a citizen revolt, and then the killing of Maurice Bishop and his dignitaries. A four day curfew was also announced and the penalty for disobeying this curfew was being shot on sight.

2. “Reagan News Conference on Grenada Invasion.” Clip: Reagan News Conference on Grenada Invasion. C-SPAN, 25 Oct. 1983. Statement. The press conference was held in order to announce the invasion of the island of Grenada on the apparent request of the five member states of the OECS and other Caribbean entities secondarily. Present in the press conference also was the Prime Minister of Dominica at the time representing as the head of the OECS. She was one of the main “runners” when it came to getting assistance to intercede on the behalf of Grenadian people and by extension the Caribbean.

3. Domain/agencies, Source: Public. Ronald Reagan’s 1983 Telephone Apology to Margaret Thatcher over Grenada Invasion – Audio. N.p. Audio Recording. During the Reagan administration it was unknown at the time that he was recording a selected number of phone calls. This is a recorded phone call of President Reagan apologizing for the invasion of Grenada without the “informing” of Margaret Thatcher, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of that time. Grenada was a British Commonwealt, and at that time just gained independence, so Prime Minister Thatcher felt it was only right that the United States should have said something before the invasion.

4. OECS. “Treaty Establishing the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States(OECS).” 18 June 1981. Web. Article 8, sections 3, 4 & 5 give an insight on what the OECS used to make their decision to take upon themselves the initiative to assist Grenada. This treaty was signed roughly two years before the invasion took place, Bishop being one of those to sign that treaty. The OECS didn’t think that it would be enforcing that treaty that soon and in such a manner.

5. Singh, Ricky. “Invasion Cannot Be Justified.” Nov. 1983: 1. Print. This article appeared originally in the “The Nation” newspaper on October 25th 1983 but however was republished in the Caribbean Contact. It’s a commentary written by Ricky Singh and Editor for the Newspaper. In this article Singh gave his take on the Grenada revolution and why he thinks it is a total breach of moral and ethical code on the part of the United States and the OECS.

Secondary Sources

1. Christian, Gabriel. “The Grenada Invasion.” Mamo! The Life and Times of Dame Mary Eugenia Charles. 2009: Pont Casse Press. 248. Print. This book provides a detailed overview of events that occurred during the Eugenia era along with interviews with the Dame herself. This book seeks to provide to the public the story of Dame Eugenia Charles from the original “source”. This book was used to record the Dame’s movements during the period of the revolution and gives her perspective on that time period not only and Prime Minister of Dominica but also as the head of the OECS.,/p>

2. Wilder, Ann Elizabeth. “Eugenia Charles (1919-2005).” n. p. Web. This online article on the life Dame Eugenia Charles gives a synopsis of what the former Prime Minister of Dominica Embodied. In particular it pays attention to her work during the period the Grenada revolution. However it was found that the article was missing a few bits of crucial information that were crucial during that time.

3. “Eugenia Charles.” The Economist 15 Sept. 2005. The Economist. Web. 25 Mar. 2015 This magazine article gives a completely different take on the Eugenia regime-so far the furthest from stereotype I have seen. It argues that she and Margaret Thatcher were both women standing their ground against a male dominated world and they both doing an equally good job at it. It expressed to the reader a side to the Dame that would not have been thought of otherwise.

4. Evelyn, Christopher E. “The Reagan Administration’s Motivations for Intervening in Grenada (October 25, 1983).” Trent University, 2010. Web. This thesis proves that my suspicion is headed in the right direction. Within this work it reveals that the US only provided justifications for the invasion not their true motivation. At that time the US was losing world support as it had just taken a major hit in Lebanon and wanted to reassure the word that it could still intervene in times of weakness. It was intended as a statement of power.

5. Depradine, Lincoln. “Jamaica Observer Limited.” Jamaica Observer. N.p., 31 Oct. 2013. Web. 28 Mar. 2015. This work is an online article that brings to light supposed truths about the reason why the US intervened in Grenada. It argues that the intervention was not an invasion but however it was framed as such. From the article the “invitation” part of the invasion was only a publicity stunt to cover up the United States’ real motives.